The District of palamu lies between 23 degree 50’ and 24 degree 8’ north latitude and between 83 degree 55’ and 84 degree 30’ east longitude. It contains an area of 5043.8 square Kms. The administrative head quarter is Daltonganj situated on koel river in 24 degree 3’ north and 84 degree 4’ east. Daltonganj has taken its name after colonel Dalton, commissioner of Chhotangapur in 1861. The distance between Daltonganj and Ranchi is 165 Km. Old Palamu District is divided in three Districts.
The district is bainded north by the river Son which separates it from the districts of Rohtas, and by the district Aurangabad (Bihar), on the east by the district of Chatra and Hazaribagh, on the south by the district Latehar on the west by the district Garhwa and Chhatisgarh state.
Rivers: The general line of drainpipe is from south to north towards the SON, which forms parts of the northern boundary of the districts .The principals rivers are Koel and its tributaries, the Auranga and the Amanat. There are also last of smaller streams, most of which are mere mountain torrents which rock–strewn beds. The KoelAuranga and Amanat are similar in this respect for their upper reaches are characterized by high banks Generally rugged and occasionally precipitous with a rapid stream dashing over boulders and shingle or gliding. Calmly, except in time of spate, in shadow parts terminated by rocky barriers. Further north these rivers have deep sandy beds, into which the water sinks out of sight in the hot weather, percolating through the soft sand. Until some outcrop of rock arrests its course and forces it to the surface.